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三个语法考点讲与练

时间:2015-04-16 15:08来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
No. 1 点击介词by的用法 1. 用于被动语态的句子中,表示动作的执行者,意为“被、由”。如:He was praised by the teacher. (他受到了老师的表扬。) 2. 表示使用方式、手段等,后常接无冠

   No. 1 点击介词by的用法

  1. 用于被动语态的句子中,表示动作的执行者,意为“被、由”。如:He was praised by the teacher. (他受到了老师的表扬。)

  2. 表示使用方式、手段等,后常接无冠词的名词或动名词,意为“通过、靠、用”。如:

  1)Don?謘t judge a person by appearances. (切勿以貌取人。)

  2)The young man made a living by teaching. (那位年轻人以教书为生。)

  ◆注意:by,in和with这三个介词都含有“使用”的意思,它们的区别可以表解如下:

  

  

  3. 对by引导的介词短语所作的方式状语提问,常用how。如:

  —How does the boy study for a test?

  —By working with a group.

  4. 表示时间,意为“到……时为止”或“不迟于……”。如:

  By the time he was ten,he had learnt about 1,000 English words. (到十岁时,他已学了约1000个英语单词。)

  5. “by+交通工具、交通方式名词(名词前不加冠词,不变复数)”意为:“通过……、由……、乘……”。如:

  My father usually goes to work by bus. (父亲经常乘公共汽车去上班。)

  6. 表示位置,意为“在……旁边”。如:

  There is a pumping station by the river. (河边有个抽水站。)

   No. 1 含used的相似句型之“会诊”

  同学们对used to和be used to的用法容易混淆,为帮助大家迅速掌握其用法,现以正误辨析的形式呈现给大家,供学习时参考。

  1. 我爷爷过去常去钓鱼。

  [误]My grandpa used to going fishing.

  [正]My grandpa used to go fishing.

  [析]used to do sth. 表示“过去常常做某事(而现在不做了)”,其后接动词原形。

  2. 你过去常在河里游泳吗?

  [误] Were you used to swim in the river?

  [误]Did you used to swim in the river?

  [正]Did you use to swim in the river?

  [正]Used you to swim in the river?

  [析]used to do sth. 的疑问式为:Used+主语+ to do sth.或Did(助动词)+主语+use to do sth.;其否定式为:主语+ used not to do sth.或主语+didn’t(助动词)+use to do sth.

  3. 西蒙已经习惯住在南京。

  [误]Simon has been used to live in Nanjing.

  [正]Simon has been used to living in Nanjing.

  [析]be used to后跟名词或动名词,表示“习惯于(做)某事”,可用于各种时态。注意:此处的to是介词,同学们千万不能误认为是动词不定式的符号,而误接动词原形。

  【拓展】在初中阶段,含有介词to的后跟动名词形式的常见短语还有:devote…to(doing sth.)忠于……;prefer doing to(doing sth.)比起做……更愿意做……;make a contribution to(doing sth.)为……做贡献;look forward to (doing sth.)期待……等。

  4. 木料可用来制作多种工具。

  [误] Wood can be used to making many kinds of tools.

  [正]Wood can be used to make many kinds of tools.

  [析]be used to do sth. 表示“被用来做……”(即:被动结构)。此时,不能和be used to doing sth. 的用法混淆。

   No. 1 聚焦含情态动词的被动语态

  一. 理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念

  被动语态的基本结构为:be+动词的过去分词。含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的情感和态度。初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有can,may,must,need,should等。如:

  More trees must be planted every year. (每年都必须种更多的树。)

  Old men should be spoken to politely. (应该礼貌地跟老人说话。)

  二. 掌握含情态动词的被动语态的不同句式的变换方法

  含情态动词的被动语态的疑问句、否定句的变化均借助于情态动词完成。

  1. 含情态动词的被动语态,陈述句变为否定句时,在情态动词后面加上not或never即可。但must表“必要”时否定式为needn?謘t。如:

  1) This work needn?謘t be done at once. (没必要立即做这项工作。)

  2) This dustbin shouldn?謘t be put here. (这个垃圾箱不应该放在这里。)

  2. 含情态动词的被动语态,陈述句变为一般疑问句时,直接将陈述句被动语态中的情态动词提到句首即可。如:

  1) Must this work be done at once?(必须立刻完成这项工作吗?)

  2) Should your homework be finished before six?(你的家庭作业应该在6点前完成吗?)

  3. 含情态动词的被动语态,陈述句变为特殊疑问句时,由疑问词加上一般疑问句的被动语态构成。如:

  1)When must this work be done?(什么时候必须完成这项工作?)

  2)Where can the lost book be found?(在哪能找到失踪的书?)

  三. 含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答

  must表“必须”时,否定回答应用needn?謘t;need表“必要”时,肯定回答应用must。如:

  1)—Must his exercise book be handed in at once?

  —Yes,it must. / No,it needn?謘t.

  2)—Need he be operated on at once?

  —Yes,he must. / No,he needn?謘t.

   小试牛刀

  学完上述三个语法知识点后,小试身手,做做中考选择题吧!

  1. Maria shy,but now she is quite outgoing. She has made lots of friends. (2010年宁夏卷)

  A. was used to be B. used to be

  C. was used to being D. is used to be

  2. —How do you study Chinese so well?

  — reading plenty of books. (2010年长春卷)

  A. To B. Of C. At D. By

  3. —It’s difficult for the village children to cross the river for school.

  —I think a bridge over the river. (2010年眉山卷)

  A. should be built B. is being built

  C. has been built D. was built

  4. —Excuse me,what’s this for?

  —It’s a cleaner and it to pick up dirt. (2010年广东卷)

  A. uses B. is used C. is using D. used

  5. Nowadays the old should in our society. (2010年兰州卷)

  A. be taken good care B. be taken good care of

  C. be taken well care D. take good care of

  Keys:

  1~5:B D A B B

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